Advances in the canning and canning industry, which is part of the packaging industry in each country, are directly related to other industries in the country . That is, given the level of technology capability in each country to manufacture and supply a variety of goods, the packaging industry, which is an integral part of the processing industry, is growing, designing and manufacturing the necessary packaging for new goods to compete in domestic and foreign markets. And it creates innovation, and with new experiences in the market, the competition becomes more dynamic and efficient . In our country, there are different types of packaging industries, including cans, cartons, glass, plastic, paper and cardboard . However, it should be acknowledged that due to the lack of necessary technical knowledge, there is a significant lack of attention to quality and the impossibility of quick access to modern technology .In recent years, however, it has progressed more rapidly in other countries . Lack of competition among domestic products is one of the causes of these shortages, and due to the tremendous cost required to invest in the import of modern technology, there is less interest in investing in this sector of industry than in recent years. In foreign markets, especially in the field of new agricultural food products, the added value of packaging on exports is very important, and the difference between peak goods and packaged goods in principle and market-friendly is very different . But unfortunately due to poor packaging, particularly cans added value to countries that supply them with the appropriate packaging can be . For example, failure to export, despite the best food products inside the can, is due to the unpleasant appearance and even rusting of the can, or non-compliance with other countries' standards or poor printing, a high percentage of pistachio exports, tomato paste and ... is issued in bulk . Lack of attention to print quality is another important factor in packaging, including cans, which play an important role in its attractiveness . In this regard, we have not been able to offer competitive work, which must be compensated for . In general, it should be acknowledged that the industry of packaging and packaging in the country needs to be reconstructed on the one hand, access to modern technology on the other hand, and with the current situation, it is not possible to compete in export markets with the facilities that competitors have. expected success and apart from foreign export, after a year of poor farmers . Planting, holding and harvesting products and transportation, and then feeding food products for canning, as well as the efforts of seafaring fishermen to prepare meat products with difficulty and with difficulty in Parallel to maintenance and transportation, they are transferred to food industry factories, an improper or weak package can waste food products or reduce the quality that is considered a kind of damage to national capital . Now, considering the importance of packaging and the current situation of the country's canning and food industries, and the lack of a current field or field of study specific to the packaging industry at the level of higher education and even sufficient training courses for this industry, at least people are expected. Having succeeded in gaining experience and knowledge in this industry, they have combined their successes with new sciences and provide this new information to the packaging and food industries of the country and interested people in order to use the same information in the relative improvement of the packaging situation. Be . In this collection, we have tried to use as few foreign words as possible and express them in simple language . And I hope that we can take a positive step in this industry with this collection and the next collections. And thank you . History of canned food in the world and Iran History has shown that at the beginning of human civilization there was no need to pack food, but to get food from one place to another until they found ( or built ) permanent shelters . In such circumstances, they had to bring food from different places. Collect . This need led to the use of the first packaging, such as dried squash, oysters, leaves, and animal skins and other natural ingredients, which are still used in the tropics to store food . People in every town and village kept their food in some way so that they could use it when necessary or when the material was available for economic or seasonal reasons . For this reason, they gained experience by salting meat and drying fruits so that they could be stored for longer periods of time, until in 1790, when the French government was at war with other European countries, Napoleon fed his soldiers. He faced many difficulties in keeping and transporting proper and healthy food without special conditions .
It awarded a prize of 12,000 francs to anyone who solves the problem .
Nicolas Aper, who used to work in a brewery and later worked as a pastry chef, studied and experimented with various experiments in his local workshop . In 1804, he tested his first can on glass sailors, packed in glass containers and heated in boiling water, during a voyage . In 1809, the French National Institute of Industry endorsed the safety of glass content, and finally in 1810, Aper received his award, and for a long time his method was used . Gradually, due to the fragility of the glass, glazed dishes became common . And in 1810, an Englishman named Peter Durant recommended the construction of a metal box made of steel with tin tin . And in 1812, the first canning factory began in Boston, USA . In 1823 a tin can called Canister Became common . The method of canning food in metal cans was implemented in 1856 for packing condensed milk, oysters and corn kernels . And in 1877, the production of cans was carried out continuously, and the method of connecting the body of metal cans to the head and floor by double sealing or sewing with a sealing layer in order to make the containers impermeable by Marx and American Carsus Animer is another step. It was in the direction of advancing this industry . Between World War I and World War II, many people were poisoned each year by eating contaminated food that had been poisoned by contact with the body of a rusted can, and in many cases killed people. Suggested the type of packaging . But later, with the advancement of the metal packaging technique, it was used more and more in the canning industry . To prevent or reduce the chemical interactions between the metal and the contents of the can, the use of the inner lacquer coating of the can was considered. Gradually, different types of lacquer coating with artificial resins with different properties were made available for special applications. Three-piece tin was common today . Today, hundreds of millions of cans of canned food and beverages are consumed annually in the world . The canning industry in Iran has been considered since 1307 in relation to the storage of various food products . In 1309, some of the devices in manufacturing metal cans ( scissors, pipe now, cutting and so the manually operated to Iran and a few cans of production and the consumer market was launched . However, due to insufficient Information about the manufacture of cans caused waste that caused the destruction of raw materials . Then the first cannery in 1316 to produce canned fish in Bandar Abbas began with the production of cans from foreign countries . Then the first metal cans for packaging hydrogenated oil in 1330 was built . in the wake of the mills containers of non-food items due to requests factories producing food products to the manufacture of metal cans that due to the low quality of the cans used for food was . Today, with the relative progress of technology in other industries has led to the establishment of dozens of companies producing cans of food that each year about a hundred million of various cans of food consumption to provide yet in this industry infirmities can be seen that causes Cans, especially soda cans, come from other countries . Hopefully, one day in this industry, we will be fully self-sufficient both in terms of raw materials and production, and we will even plan to export this lucrative product . Features and steps of making cans : First, large steel ingots with special soft alloys pass through huge rolls in hot form, and after different stages, the thickness and dimensions of the sheet are formed, and finally it becomes a raw sheet and in thicknesses. 25mm They are produced ( consumed more for food ), and the sheets are graded according to their technical characteristics and completely smooth and polished or semi-polished surfaces . From the next stage of Continios Aniling (Continuous anillingAnother method of annealing, Einling Box (Bouaniling) In this method, the sheets that are produced are made into wiki coils and are completely and simultaneously placed in the heat, the amount of heat and its duration are also determined according to the degree of hardness of the sheets . Annealing refers to determining the amount of hardness of the sheets produced ( spring and hardness of the sheets ), which is called sheet tempering (Thigness temper) That it used depending on the type of production they apply sheets after the annealing step, the black sheet or sheets ( Black plate) Are specified . It is noteworthy that determining the type of sheet with what thickness and hardness to make the cans requires special research and experiments, which are only mentioned in this section . For example, if the sheet used with lower hardness and thickness is used for special 500 g cans, it may be very desirable, but if the same sheet with the same specifications is used for cans of one kilogram and larger than one kilogram . It is possible that the can will be damaged or sunken during and after sterilization . As a result, the choice of sheets depends on the type of product and the type of sterilization, at what temperature and pressure, as well as the volume of the cans .
Het - Dippedplate They call . However, this method is still used in special cases where the thickness of the tin coating on both sides of the sheet must be the same . And how to do this is that first the fat of the surface of Aleppo sheet is removed with hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid and enters the cylindrical container and its surface is in contact with zinc chloride and then with molten tin and then with A layer of palm oil is impregnated to prevent the oxidation of hot tin, at least tin for every square meter in this method.g / 19 And if this amount is placed evenly on the surface, the can of this sheet will be resistant to impact and corrosion, and the tin is characterized by the characteristics and steps of making cans. - Aleppo type sheetMR: Used for foods with moderate corrosive properties such as beech, fig and apricot . - Aleppo sheet type 8 : This type of alloy contains a low percentage of stable metals such as copper. Mo, Cr, Ni It helps to reduce its corrosion resistance and is used for foods with severe corrosion, such as pickles, salts, and Great Fruit . - Aleppo type sheetMC: For food with low corrosive, such as green peas, green bean, corn, meat and shrimp used . - Aleppo sheetD This type of alloy is free of aluminum and can be used to make ship cans with long walls . Also, in order to keep them soft and to prevent premature rusting and to increase the quality of the sheets, after coating them with tin, they are soaked in thin layers of oil, then the sheets are cut from longitudinal and coil mode to sheets with clear and flat dimensions. That sheet Sheet They are called and after proper packaging, they are provided to consumers . | The type and composition of steel is very important in terms of softness, flexibility and resistance to mechanical and chemical factors, and its choice depends on the type of product or its intended packaging . Benefits of tin tin plating : 1 - prevent rusting sheet 2 - facilitate the adhesion of lacquer interior and print out cans 3 - Better and clearer 4 - prevention of premature aging parts and molds that shape the sheets to cans involved 5 - to facilitate the welding Drzbdnh The cans will be special, especially the cans that are produced by soldering . - Sheet thicknessThigness- Sheet hardnessThigness tempr - Existence of parallel and connected lines that represent a thicker layer of tin coating inside the can . - Existence of cut parallel lines that indicate the greater thickness of the tin coating outside the can . Or - the lack of parallel lines, which indicate the same continuous or discontinuous Boudin tin layer thickness of the inner wall and the outer wall is sheet . And in cases where the amount of tin is different on both sides of the sheet, Aleppo is Aleppo D Or Defferential tinplate Thus the situation is Nmayshayn say and how to say in Aleppo sheet with the code D 100 / 25 100 internal display, a surface coating of tin and 25 indicate the amount of tin coating on the outer surface . Electrolytic tin coating sheet surface coating with lines 7 / 5 grams per square meter of tin coating on the other side of sheet 2 / 5 grams per square meter Electrolytic tin coating sheet Electro-tin coating The surface has lines of 5 grams per square meter of tin coating The other surface of the sheet 2.5 grams per square meter Common tests of sheets in the canning industry are: . - Hardness(Thigness temper) 2 - traction (Tensile) ٣ - Spring or reversibility(Spring back test) 4 - Bending to the point of breaking down tissues(Bending test) 5 - the amount of tin(Tin thigness) 6 - uniformity of tin coating(Monotonousness) 7 - sheet thickness (Thigness) 1 - hardness (Thigness temper): There are different ways to determine the degree of hardness of sheets, known as sheet temperament, and what standard the hardness is tested on, for example, in some cases by determining the degree of hardness by scratching or scratching the sheet. Or by applying pressure by special mandrels on the desired sheet at a certain time, the amount of immersion in the sheet is determined by advanced devices, which will indicate the degree of hardness and softness of the sheet, the name of these devices is hardness meter . And 2 - traction (Tensile): This type of test is also performed by advanced devices in such a way that a piece of the desired sheet is stretched on both sides and from the time it is stretched to the separation mode with the device is recorded and the traction of the sheet is determined according to the relevant standards. Can . - Spring (Spring backtest): This test can be done with a simple tool so that pieces of different sheets of the same size and dimensions are cut and tied one by one to a special clamp that the clamp plate is from zero to 180 degrees . By turning the sheet rollers from 180 degrees to about 20 degrees, we bend and separate the rollers once, and after turning the sheets, the degree of reversibility of the sheets relative to each other is determined . - Bend to the point of breaking (Bending test) This test can also be performed with a simple tool so that the tested sheets are cut in the same dimensions and after closing the special clamp with a special roller, the sheets are bent to the left and right. At least up to 90 degrees to the left and 90 degrees to the right ) and after the specified number of bends, the sheet begins to break from the part that compares the number of bends.Bending test The sheets will be . - The amount of tin (Tin Thigness): Cut and weigh a piece of sheet in a quadrangular shape and then put it in an antimony chloride solution for 25 seconds, then wash and clean it with water and then weigh it and the initial weight difference And secondly, the amount of tin is obtained at the test level, which is usually determined based on the amount of tin per unit area . If the tin on one side of the sheet is determined before testing, the other sheet should be coated with varnish or paint so that the other side is not damaged during the tin test . 6 - uniformity of tin coating : (Monotonousness) Cut a piece of the desired sheet and insideNACN Or put sodium cyanide for 30 minutes and then rinse it with water. The sheets that are more blackened have less uniformity . (This solution is very dangerous and should be used with caution. ) 7 - Thickness of sheets : With special devices for measuring the thickness of Aleppo sheets or micrometers, the thickness of the sheets can be measured . Stainless steel sheet ( sheet Tin - freesteelplate ): Due to the limitations and high prices of tin, in recent years, cream has been used instead of this substance, and this material is placed on Aleppo by electrolytic methods and is called (TFS - Tin free steelplates) Called the sticky varnish it is good and this type of Aleppo for head and foam cans used both sides of the lacquer with, and the well being of welding the sheet to the body of the cans Tuesday Pieces are not used . This type of sheet has disadvantages such as, inability to weld with sheet conditions Tinplate The inability to solder in solder cans was not due The initial background in the sheet is the premature erosion of parts and molds that are involved in deforming these sheets into cans, but due to the cheapness of these types of sheets after both sides are impregnated with varnish to prevent premature wear of the parts in the head and Bottles of cans are consumed . ( More details on canning techniques will be in the next series .) Aluminum sheet (AI, plate ): Aluminum sheets with different thicknesses and hardnesses have many advantages due to their light alloy, which do not suffer from rust, but are mostly used in the beverage industry, in the form of tensile cans, which are filled with gas pressure from the inside. It is well tolerated that more than 70% of the cans produced in the world are consumed annually in the beverage industry . ( More details on the new combs will be in the next series .) Lacquer sheets : The varnish used for canned food must meet the following conditions : Temperature resistant up to about 120 سان C for 2 hours, resistant to acids and alkalis, sufficient adhesion strength, sufficient mechanical strength, odorless, free of toxic and harmful compounds, varnishes also depending on the type of food, some of which have high corrosion and some of corrosion are low are different, so manufacturers varnishes, used a variety of lacquers for different products after studies and tests have shown, for example : internal lacquer boxes containing canned pears exposed to corrosive than the cherries are Be . Therefore, the type of varnish is different for them . To put a layer on the primary sheets ( Sheet) A cylinder ( rubber rollers ) whose outer surface is applied to a layer with a certain thickness of the desired varnish and is placed on the surface of the sheet by passing the sheet through that varnish . Then, the lacquer sheet is placed in the oven so that the lacquer is cooked and the solvent is separated . Lacquer baking temperature in the first stage 170 - 175c And in the second stage 190 - 205c Depending on the desired product . And it differs from the type of varnish . The presence of undigested varnish pores on the surface of the can leaves causes contact between water or fruit extract with tin and iron and gradually causes the varnish to separate. To deal with this situation, it is better to use two varnish coatings . In cases where the lacquered sheet will be used by the body of the can, due to the lack of conductors, part of the sheet will not be eroded due to the seam welding operation so that the welding operation is performed directly on the sheet. Margin is said to be varnished after welding, but the sheets used are completely varnished . Another method that is mostly used in the lacquer industry in the beverage cans industry is spray varnish, so that the cans are sprayed and uniformly sprayed into the spray cans after being made by the methods of welding seams or pulling the desired varnish. The varnished cans are then transferred to the kilns and the cans are dried during the specified time and temperature
processing. UK: Blacki Academic and Professional, 279 p. 40- Arthey, D. and P.R. Ashurst. 1996. Fruit processing. UK: Blacki Academic and Professional, 248 p. 41- Aylward, F. 2001. Food technology processing and laboratory control. India: Agrobios, 303 p. 42- Barret, D. M. ; L. Somogyi and H. Ramaswamy. 2005. Processing fruits, science and technology. UK: CRC press, 841 p. 43- Bhatia, S. C. 1994. Canning and preservation of fruits and vegetables. India: Siri, 208 p. 44- Dauthy, M. E. 1995. Fruit and vegetable processing. FAO agricultural services bulletin, 382 p. 45- Fellows, P. J. 1990. Food processing technolngy, principdes and practic. England: Ellis Horwood limited, 505 p. 46- Finch. C. and H. Cracknell. 1998. Food preparation and cookery. Malaysia: Addison Wesley Longman, 516 p. 47- Footitt, R. J. and A. S. Lewis. 1995. The canning of fish and meat. UK: Blacki Academic and Professional, 310 p. 48- Frazier, W. C. 1995. Food microbiology. New york: McGraw Hill, 539 p. 49- Gould, G. W. 1995. New methods of food preservation. UK: Blackie Academic and Professional, 324 p. 50- Govindan, T. K. 1985. Fish processing technology. India: Mohan Primlani, 252 p. 51- Graf, E. and I. Sam Saguy. 1991. Food product development, from concept to the marketplace. USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 441 p. 52- Gupta. G. and V. K. Narang. 1999. Modern food and food products industries. India: Small industry research institute, 504 p. 53- Houston, D. F. 1972. Rice chemistry and technology. USA: AACC, 517 p. 54- Hummel. C. 1966. Macaroni products, manufacture, processing and packing. UK: Food Trade Press, 287 p. 55- Jagtiani, D. 1980. Fruit preservation. India: Tarang Paperbacks, 104 p. 56- Jay, J. M. 2005. Modern food microbiology. UK: Springer, 790 p. 57- Jongen, W. 2002. Fruit and vegetable processing, improving quality. UK: CRC press, 388 p. 58- Juliano, B. O. 1985. Rice chemistry and technology. USA: AACC, 774 p. 59- Khatkar, B. S. 2007. Food science and technology. India: Daya, 549 p. 60- Lopez, A. 1987. A complete course in canning, book II: processing procedure for canned food products. USA: Canning trade Inc, 473 p. 61- Luh. B. 1975. Commercial vegetable processing. AVI Publication Inc, 755 p. 62- Martin, R. E. 1990. The Seafood industry. USA: Van Nostrand reinhold, 445 p. 63- McCabe W. L. ; J. C. Smith and P. Harriott. 2001. Unit operations of chemical engineering. USA: Mc Graw Hill, 1114 p. 64- Potter. N. N. 1995. Food science. USA: AVI Chapman and Hall, 608 p. 65- Ranken, M. C. and R. C. Kill. 1997. Food industries manual. UK: Blacki Academic and Professional, 650 p.166- Rogers, J. L. 1974. A course in Canning. Food Trade Press Ltd, 125 p. 67- Sethi. M. and S. Rao. 2001. Food science experiments and application. India: CBS publication, 234 p. 68- Shakuntala Manay, N. and M. Shadaksharaswamy. 2001. Food, facts and principles. India: New age international Publishers, 540 p. 69- Lal, G. ; G. S. Siddappa and G. L. Tandon. 1998. Preservation of fruits and vegetables. India: Indian Council of agricultural research, 488 p. 70- Srilakshmi. B. 1996. Food Science.India: New age international limited Publishers, 375 p. 71- Subbulakshmi, G. and A. Udipi. 2001. Food processing and preservation. India: New Age International Limited Publishers, 298 p. 72- Toled, R. T. 1991. Fundamertals of food process engineering. USA: Chapman and Hall, 602 p. 73- Zeuthen, P. and L. Bogh-sorensen. 2003. Food preservation techniques. UK: CRC Press, 581 p